History



Chocolate is a sweet food made from the cacao bean. It is fermented, roasted, crushed up to form a liquid cocoa paste from which the fat is extracted called cocoa butter. Chocolate is made of some mixture, in variable proportions, cocoa paste, cocoa butter and sugar; it is possible to add spices, vanilla, or vegetable fat.

Consumed initially as spicy drink in Mexico and Central America, chocolate from Nahuatl Xocoatl, becomes more democratic with the industrial revolution.

In the twenty-first century, it is consumed in solid form (dark or milk chocolate) or liquid (hot chocolate). The chocolate is found in many desserts such as confectionery, biscuits, cakes, ice cream, pies.To give chocolate, moulded of different ways, became traditional during certain festivities: eggs, rabbits and bells with Passovers, coins for Hanukkah and Christmas and hearts for Saint-Valentine.

The word chocolate is derived from nahuatl xocolatl which is a combination of the words xocolli (meaning "acid") and atl (which means "water").

 The Aztecs were joining the chocolate with Xochiquetzal, the goddess of fertility. The Mayas the associated also to their god of fertility.
Mexican philologist Ignacio Davila the Garibi suggests that the Spanish have invented this word by combining the term Chocol and replacing the Maya word haa (meaning water) by the term Nahuatl atl. However, it seems more likely that the Aztecs themselves coined the word imprecise, having long adopted into Nahuatl the Mayan word for cocoa beans.
Indeed, the Spanish had little contact with the Maya before Cortés reported a chocolate drink known as xocolatl to the King of Spain. Wiliam Bright notes that the word xocoatl does not appear in the Spanish language or in the colonial Nahuatl sources.
In a controversial study, linguists Karen Dakin and Søren Wichmann note that in many dialects of Nahuatl, the name is rather chicolatl than chocolatl. In addition, many languages ​​spoken in Mexico (such as popoluca, Mixtec, Zapotec) and even the Philippines have borrowed this version of the word.
The word Chicol-li refers to cooking utensils (still used in some areas). Since chocolate was served originally in ceremonies, with individual whips, Dakin and Wichmann consider that it seems quite probable that the original form of the word was chicolatl, which could mean "beaten drink ' . In many parts of Mexico, in fact chicolear means "beat, stir '